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Erik Moberg ©

 

A first comment on the distinction between democracies and quasi-democracies

 

The tables 5, 6 and 7 in the Appendix include, as I contend and write there, not only all democracies in the world but also a number of quasi-democracies. The reason is that the criteria used for selecting the states in the tables are necessary conditions for democracy but not sufficient ones. Thus, and even if some fundamental formal democratic rules are followed, there may, in some states, be so much corruption and/or so limited mass media freedom that they have to characterized as quasi-democracies rather than democracies.

 

Here I will now start an effort to separate the real democracies from the quasi-democracies and I will do that by using the “Corruptions perceptions index 2016”. Corruption is here defined as “the misuse of public power for private benefit” and the indexes arrived at are the results of expert assessments and opinion surveys. The scale is from 100, standing for no corruption at all, to 0, standing for totally corrupt.

 

The result is shown in the table below. The table contains all the states in the tables 5, 6 and 7 in the Appendix except, as explained in the Appendix, Andorra, Lichtenstein, Monaco and Burkina Faso, and also except a number of states for which no corruption index is given in the source used. The states are ordered according to their corruption indexes.

 

Table: Corruption indexes for democracies and quasi-democracies

 

Denmark, 90

Slovenia, 61

South Africa, 45

New Zealand, 90

Taiwan, 61

Senegal, 45

Finland, 89

Botswana, 60

Surinam, 45

Sweden, 88

Saint Lucia, 60

Greece, 44

Switzerland, 86

Saint Vincent and

Ghana, 43

Norway, 85

  the Grenadines, 60

Solomon Islands, 42

Netherlands, 83

Cape Verde, 59

Serbia, 42

Canada, 82

Dominica, 59

Tunisia, 41

Luxembourg, 81

Lithuania, 59

Turkey, 41

Germany, 81

Costa Rica, 58

Brazil, 40

United Kingdom, 81

Spain, 58

India, 40

Australia, 79

Georgia, 57

Bosnia and

Iceland, 78

Latvia, 57

Herzegovina, 39

Belgium, 77

Grenada, 56

Lesotho, 39

Austria, 75

Cyprus, 55

Mongolia, 38

United States, 74

Czech Republic, 55

Panama, 38

Ireland, 73

Malta, 55

Indonesia, 37

Japan, 72

Mauritius, 54

Liberia, 37

Uruguay, 71

South Korea, 53

Macedonia, 37

Estonia, 70

Namibia, 52

Argentina, 36

France, 69

Slovakia, 51

Benin, 36

Bahamas, 66

Croatia, 49

El Salvador, 36

Chile, 66

Hungary, 48

Kosovo, 36

Bhutan, 65

Romania, 48

Niger, 35

Israel, 64

Italy, 47

Peru, 35

Poland, 62

São Tomé

Philippines, 35

Portugal, 62

and Príncipe, 46

 

Barbados, 61

Montenegro, 45

 

 

 

Even if the table is interesting it gives no clear border-line between democracies and quasi-democracies. For that more detailed examinations of individual states must be undertaken, and I will come back to that later on. The only thing that can be said is that the real democracies tend to be found in the “left or upper” part of the table and the quasi-democracies, correspondingly, in the “right or lower” part.

 

The corruption indexes can however be used in another interesting way, namely for a comparison with GDP/capita. Here, at first, is a diagram presenting the correlation between GDP/capita and the level of corruption. The correlation is, as is easily seen, striking.

 

 

 

Diagram: Correlation between GDP/capita and level of corruption

 

The diagram does however not contain the written names of all the states indicated, that would have been too messy. In the table below does however give all that information completely. And the table also shows which of the states, in the Appendix tables, for which corruption indexes are missing. The relevant cells are empty.

 

Table: GDP/capita (international dollars 2016) and corruption indexes for democracies and quasi-democracies

 

First part of the table

Second part of the table

Luxembourg

104 003

81

Montenegro

16 643

45

Norway

69 249

85

Costa Rica

16 436

58

Ireland

69 231

73

Palau

15 319

 

Switzerland

59 561

86

Brazil

15 242

40

San Marino

59 058

 

Macedonia

14 597

37

United States

57 436

74

Serbia

14 493

42

Netherlands

51 049

83

Grenada

14 116

56

Sweden

49 836

88

Surinam

13 988

45

Iceland

49 136

78

South Africa

13 225

45

Australia

48 899

79

Peru

12 903

35

Germany

48 111

81

Mongolia

12 275

38

Taiwan

48 095

61

Saint Lucia

11 783

60

Austria

48 005

75

Indonesia

11 720

37

Denmark

47 985

90

Tunisia

11 634

41

Canada

46 437

82

Nauru

11 539

 

Belgium

45 047

77

Dominica

11 375

59

United Kingdom

42 481

81

Namibia

11 290

52

France

42 314

69

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

11 271

60

Finland

42 165

89

Ecuador

11 109

31

Japan

41 275

72

Bosnia and Herzegovina

10 958

39

Malta

39 834

55

Kosovo

10 235

36

South Korea

37 740

53

Georgia

10 044

57

New Zealand

37 294

90

Paraguay

9 396

30

Italy

36 833

47

El Salvador

8 909

36

Spain

36 416

58

Bhutan

8 227

65

Israel

35 179

64

Belize

8 220

 

Cyprus

34 970

55

Guyana

7 873

34

Czech Republic

33 232

55

Philippines

7 728

35

Slovenia

32 085

61

Bolivia

7 218

33

Trinidad and Tobago

31 870

35

Cape Verde

6 662

59

Slovakia

31 339

51

India

6 616

40

Lithuania

29 972

59

Samoa

5 553

 

Estonia

29 313

70

Tonga

5 386

 

Portugal

28 933

62

Moldova

5 328

30

Poland

27 764

62

Ghana

4 412

43

Seychelles

27 602

 

Timor-Leste

4 187

35

Hungary

27 482

48

Federated States of Micronesia

3 900

 

Greece

26 669

44

Lesotho

3 601

39

Saint Kitts and Nevis

25 940

 

Tuvalu

3 567

 

Latvia

25 710

57

Papua New Guinea

3 541

28

Antigua and Barbuda

25 157

 

Marshall Islands

3 301

 

Turkey

24 912

41

Tanzania

3 080

32

Bahamas

24 555

66

Sao Tome and Principe

3 072

46

Chile

24 113

66

Vanuatu

2 631

 

Panama

23 024

38

Senegal

2 577

45

Croatia

22 795

49

Benin

2 119

36

Romania

22 348

48

Solomon Islands

1 973

42

Uruguay

21 527

71

Kiribati

1 823

 

Mauritius

20 422

54

Sierra Leone

1 672

30

Argentina

20 047

36

Comoros

1 529

24

Mexico

18 938

30

Malawi

1 134

31

Barbados

17 100

61

Niger

1 107

35

Botswana

17 042

60

Liberia

855

37

 

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