Erik Moberg ã:
A Theory of Democratic Politics


In this system political parties are significantly less important than in the other three system types. Political parties are not even necessary for the systemís functioning since all elections, the presidential ones as well as those for the legislature, are majoritarian. Even so, parties may appear. The systemís functioning is however not hampered, and it may indeed be improved, if the parties activities are constrained by for instance primaries.

An important consequence of this restricted role for political parties is that political careers do not have to be party careers, and that individual main actors are more important than in any other constitutional setting.

It may, in fact, be argued that this constitutional type, more than any other type, resembles an ordinary association, say a sports club or a charity association. In such an association, as we know, there are usually no parties. The main decision-makers, or decisions-making bodies, of such an association may be a president, a board, and a general congress. These entities, and their workings, may correspond quite closely to the president with his executive, and the legislature, in this constitutional setting.

One important aspect of this resemblance, as remarked in part 9, is that the relationship between citizens and politicians will, to a large extent, be characterized by delegation rather than instruction.